Points To Be Considered in The Anti-Vandal Designs of Elevators
TS EN 81-71 (Anti-Vandalism)
Part 1: General Considerations, Definitions and Design details
Part 2: Design differences of the doors and car components forming the elevator within the scope of TS EN 81-71
PART 1: Details To Be Considered In General Considerations, Definitions And Design.
All elevators are subjected to a certain amount of careless or improper use!
Where extra protection measures may be required to protect against intentional damage risks (vandalism), or where additional safety is considered, there are some issues that the building designer, the people who have the elevator made and elevator companies have to pay attention.
Intentional damage results from anger or other forms of behavior. In order to determine the degree of possible intentional destruction in elevators to be installed, many factors should be examined. These factors relate to the type of user to be served by the elevator, and the degree of importance that elevator has for a particular building. Among them:
- The facility’s degree of accessibility
- The surrounding area
- Observations of other people in the region
- Building security and the supervision of elevators
- Access to the building, including elevators (24 hours)
- The degree to which the elevators are exposed to danger
Research has shown that the amount of intentional damage that an elevator may suffer is directly related to the level of monitoring.
With these brief information above, the categories of elevators were determined depending on the type of elevator user.
Category 0 elevators: These elevators are designed to meet the basic rules of TS EN 81-20.
Category 1 elevators: These elevators are designed to meet the requirements of TS EN 81-20 and to provide protection from moderate intentional damage attempts.
Category 2 elevators: These elevators are designed in accordance with TS EN 81-20 rules and protect against advanced-level intentional destructive attempts.
Now, let us briefly share information about the types of elevator user:
- Monitored restricted user:These are buildings in which people enter the building are checked through a help desk located in the entrance point; here, glass (panoramic) elevators can be used by monitored restricted users. For this reason, Category 0 is suitable for these elevators which comply with EN81-20 / 50 rules.
- Unmonitored restricted user: The restricted users in buildings where the entrance of people is controlled through a help desk or security desk but the behavior of these users in the elevator is not be monitored. This situation is suitable for Category 0 elevators.
- Monitored general public: These passengers use elevators in a shopping center with security cameras or of the glass (panoramic) type; therefore, Category 0 elevator is still suitable for many cases.
- Unmonitored general public: An indoor elevator located in a shopping center and used by the general public; for this use, the Category 1 elevators are most suitable.
- Potential intentional destructors: Some building types are likely to have intentional destruction. These buildings include sports stadiums, train stations, emergency departments in hospitals, social housing areas, and other similar environments and generally call for Category 2 elevators. By placing the elevator in a location that can be monitored, the control of the elevator with security cameras can significantly reduce the severity of the intentional destruction. The presence of a mirror in the car can be a useful measure to distract attention, but the choice of the material to be used must be taken into consideration. High levels of lighting are a deterrent for intentional destructors, and in-car monitoring systems also increase deterrence.
In selecting the category of the elevator to be installed, the following can be considered as a guide:
- Whether access to the elevator area is controlled or not.
- Whether the building is located in an area that may be exposed to intentional destruction.
- Whether the type of building is known to be exposed to intentional destruction.
- Whether the intended use of the elevator contributes to damage (e.g. using serving carts, etc.)
Before choosing the required elevator category, the building designer and the elevator manufacturer should seriously consider which type of users will use the elevator and the above-mentioned issues and benefits of providing additional monitoring.
After selecting the category of the elevator, designer should also consider the number, speed and size of the elevator. Incorrect selection of these parameters may increase the intentional destruction.
Performance of Elevators
Users’ waiting times and travel times within the car should be as short as possible. In order to prevent users from getting angry due to long waiting times, in multiple elevator facilities, the number of cars and speed should be selected to have a waiting interval of 45 seconds or less, on average.
The size of the elevator should be selected taking into account buildings where wheelchairs or service cars are expected to be used. If such vehicles are expected to be used, elevators having a suitable size should be selected. A full load contact can be added to the elevators to prevent them from stopping at stations when the car is full or near the full. In buildings where wheelchairs, service cars and the like that are likely to be used, it should be considered that these devices can cover the car’s floor area, preventing other passengers from getting in, even if the elevator is not fully loaded. In this case, non-stop devices must be adjustable to approximately 60% of the rated load to prevent unnecessary stops, which can make passengers angry.
A device should be considered that restricts the open time of the door to minimize the anger of users. Such a device may be any of a door-closing button, a light-beam device or other similar means. The ability to prevent the door from being open too long helps to keep the elevator running, minimizing user frustration.
Care should be taken in the selection of materials to ensure that car and station door materials do not corrode because of body fluids and cleaning materials.
Category 1 elevators are considered susceptible to mold, but it is not foreseen that this will occur continuously. For this reason, it is not necessary to take special measures against corrosion in Category 1 elevators.
In order to ensure the integrity of the cars and doors in Category 2 elevators, special protection against corrosion must be provided. The protection measures to be taken against corrosion depend on the design of the elevator, its environment and the materials selected. The designer can choose a special design to keep the materials that can cause corrosion from critical parts, or take additional measures for critical parts against corrosion. Galvanized coating or anti-corrosion paint can be applied to steel materials.
Cleaning of Car and Station Doors
In the selection of coatings in car and station doors, care should be taken to ensure that they are not easily scratched and are suitable for continuous and frequent cleaning. It should be easy to clean due to sprayed graffiti and other intentional destruction.
Protection of Power Circuits
The elevator power panel, switchgear, electrical cables and their switches must be installed in areas that are accessible only to authorized people, in order to avoid a problem with intentional destruction.
Doors and Cars
Whatever the design, it is always possible to deactivate an elevator in a simple manner, such as pouring sand, shavings or throwing cigarette butts on the door sill. Safety monitoring of the elevator helps minimize such risks. Some items will always be exposed to deliberate destruction when placed in the elevator car. Therefore, ashtrays, seats and the like must not be in the elevator car, unless required by other standards.
Statistically, accidents caused by slipping or falling are among the most common. The materials used in the car floor should be selected to minimize this risk, especially when it is wet.
In particular, granite and marble-like coatings with glossy surfaces that are used in car designs in our country should be reviewed in this regard.
Points To Be Considered By The Building Designers
Intentional destruction may result from anger or other behaviour. When a certain amount of water enters the elevator car, shaft or other areas where the elevator components are located, the elevator may not operate safely. To minimize this risk, water should not be easily exploited by intentional destructors. Designers should avoid placing hoses, fire hydrants or similar equipment close to elevators at the stations. In order to minimize water ingress into the elevator shaft, the station ground should be tilted away from the elevator entrance.
In order to minimize the frequency and severity of damage from fire and water, particular attention should be paid to the placement of certain services in certain buildings regarding the elevator facility:
Since the machine rooms are usually located on the top floor of the building, there is a risk of intentional attacks to the doors that may go unnoticed for a long time. This increases the risk of unauthorized access to the elevator equipment. In such cases, attention should be paid to limiting access to such areas not controlled by additional measures.
The strength of the machine room door has been chosen to prevent the intentional destructors from easily accessing the elevator equipment. However, it is always possible for a determined intentional destructor to enter the machine room and set fire. Such a fire may not be noticeable for a long time because the machine rooms are usually located on the top floor of the building. Therefore, a fire-detection system should be considered in such areas.
Typical Tools Used For Intentional Destruction
In order for designers to have an idea of what they will design for, it is accepted that people are likely to be carrying certain tools in their daily life. For this reason, it should be assumed that there may be intentional destruction of the elevators with one or more of these tools. While it is possible for other tools to be carried easily by people, it is obvious that the elevators cannot be designed to be resistant to damage by means of all available tools.
Examples of typical tools that can be used for intentional destruction:
Ballpoint pen, Cable / rope / wire, Wrenches, Walking stick, Chewing gum, Cigarette, Human weight (75 kg), Lighter, Penknife (Cutter part 100 mm), Medium size screwdriver (200 mm long), Bottle cap, Cutter hand tools (medium size, no strength to increase strength)
Within the scope of all the details mentioned above:
Before the construction of the elevators, we should determine the elevator category and, based on the selected category, we must manufacture the elevator in compliance with the standards.
PART 2: Design differences of the doors and car components forming the elevator within the scope of TS EN 81-71
Landing (station) and Car Doors:
- Station and car doors must be the horizontally operated sliding doors that operate automatically with machine power.
Basic main body materials used for these doors must comply with EN 13501-1 class A1
For Category 1: EN 13501-1 Class C
For Category 2: EN 13501-1 Class A2
Door materials should have features meeting flammability standards.
Furthermore, it is obvious that the station doors must comply with the TS EN 81-58 Fire Standard, according to the regulations in force.
- • Station and car door systems must be able to withstand soft pendulum impact tests specified in TS EN 81-50 with case and connections without a permanent deformation that will affect the function and operation of the doors.
Pendulum tests are described in detail in TS EN 81-50. Briefly:
Falling height 700 mm for category 1 (stroke point 1000 mm from the ground)
Falling height 700 mm for category 2 (stroke point 1000 mm from the ground)
In addition to these two tests, there is also a further test to ensure that the door bottom skids or panel underline skates cannot be removed, that the door panel integrity is maintained and that the panels cannot be separated from the door mechanism, without requiring the door to be in operation.
In this test, the stroke is done with the pendulum drop height of 1400 mm.
The integrity of the door must be maintained. However, it does not need to be active.
- • In category 2 elevators, a supplementary reinforcement should be provided in each station door and in each of the front panels of the car door, in the section where the central door panels meet, or in the panel of the telescopic doors contacting the case.
This reinforcement must be fixed to the door panel in such a way that it does not exceed 75 mm from the front panel and at an angle of not more than 45 degrees. These reinforcement parts must be integrated into the door panels; in other words, not attached in a way that can be disassembled and assembled.
If the panels are locked from the bottom or the top by an additional mechanical locking device, this locking mechanism must be able to withstand at least 60 seconds of the opening action force.
For category 2 elevators, a 10 mm diameter rod should not be able to be inserted into the elevator shaft from the side of station door.
- • For category 2 elevators, the emergency doors must be kept in a locked position by means of an extra safety system.
When no elevator car is present on a floor — in other words, while there is no elevator car in the face of the station door — the station doors must not be openable with the emergency release lock key unless the specially designed extra safety installation is deactivated.
This system must be designed for manual activation and deactivation. It should be able to be controlled from a central point. These points must be next to the machine room, control compartment, emergency or maintenance controls. It should also be marked with a special pictogram (label). This label should also be located close to the main entrance station door of the building.
After an extra safety lock has been manually deactivated, it must be re-activated within 30 to 60 minutes to prevent the station doors from operating without extra safety devices. However, this time cycle should be stopped when the elevator is taken to the maintenance control and a stop device is operated. When the elevator is in normal operating mode, the time cycle must start again. When the system is engaged manually again, the system must be activated within 30 to 60 seconds.
In the event of a main power failure, the extra safety installation must be supplied with a spare power unit that keeps the system in operation for at least 2 hours.
In line with TS EN 81-72, the system in emergency elevators (fire-fighters elevators) should be deactivated automatically when the elevator is switched to fireman mode or receives a fire signal.
The beam curtain (photocell) should not be easily accessible by unauthorized persons. In short, if the beam curtain door panels are located in the car entrance areas, access to these points should be limited or no installation should be made at these points.
The car door must always be equipped with a locking device. This device shall have features as described in TS EN 81-20.
It is recommended that the dust holes be opened in order to avoid the effects of dust or other elements that would prevent the door panels from operating in the threshold areas of the door systems to be used in Category 2 elevators. The high choice of motor torque power for the car door operator is a suitable choice for these situations.
Car walls should be equivalent to the strength values of door pendulum tests. The pendulum drop heights applied to the doors must also be applied to the car walls. The car interior body (ceiling, floor, side walls, coverings) must be resistant to cut-off. If the floor covering material is cut, it should remain constant so that it does not create any stumbling conditions.
The fire resistance values of the materials used in the car should be selected as follows:
- The materials used in the car body must comply with EN 13501-1 Class A1.
- Materials used in car ceilings and coatings
For category 1, must conform to EN13501-1 Class C.
For category 2, must comply with EN13501-1 Class A2.
Materials used in the base of the car
For category 1, should comply with EN13501-1 Class C fl.
For category 2, should comply with EN13501-1 Class A2 fl.
- The car rail should be able to withstand a point load of 2500 N (approx. 255 kg) at the most unfavorable point, for Category 2 elevators.
- If there is a mirror inside the car, it should be fixed in such a way that it does not create protrusion for Category 2 elevators, and, if glass material is used, it must be laminated.
- Car Ceiling; Suspended ceiling application can be used for Category 1 elevators. Each point that can be held on such a ceiling should be able to withstand a load of 150 kg. The suspended ceiling must be equipped with a locking device that unauthorized people from opening it within 60 seconds.
- In Category 2 elevators, the car ceiling should be designed in such a way that no one can hold on it.
- Accessories and fittings in the car must removeable with special tools for Category 1, and for Category 2 they should be identified by hidden connections so that users cannot see them.
- Car ventilation must be installed in such a way that it cannot be accessed by any cross-section bar.
- Car lighting level should be at least 100 lux as specified in TS EN81-20, and more-intense lighting is preferred. All lighting fixtures for Category 1 and Category 2 must be identified in such a way that the connections cannot be seen, and should be selected in a non-protruding manner that passengers cannot hold onto. In addition, they should have the strength values specified in TS EN 81-71 ANNEX-B and ANNEX-F.
- If there is no necessity to access the car ceiling, a roof exit door is not preferred. If present, it must be protected with an additional safety locking device, as described in the landing door. This system should include the same working principles as the landing doors.
- Equipment on and above the car (car buttons, car door operator controller card, interior displays, lighting, etc.) must be selected in a water-resistant manner at IP X3 protection level, as specified in EN 60529.
This series of articles has been prepared in 2 chapters and includes a summary of the TS EN 81-71 standard, which includes special anti-vandal applications for Anti-Vandal Passenger and Freight Elevators. Car and station control spaces are not mentioned in detail. We would like to emphasize that the TS EN 81-20 / 50, TS EN 81-71, TS EN 81-58, TS EN 81-72, and TS EN 13501 standards, as the main source, should be taken into consideration.
Note: The author cannot be held responsible for the consequences of possible incorrect information in this article. Standards and regulations in force should be used as the ultimate source of information.
- TS EN 81-20 : 2014 Asansörler Yapım Ve Montaj İçin Güvenlik Kuralları- İnsan Ve Eşya taşınması İçin Asansörler Bölüm 20: İnsan ve Eşya Asansörleri
- TS EN 81-71 Asansörler Yapım Ve Montaj İçin Güvenlik Kuralları: Yolcu Ve Yük Asansörleri İçin Özel Uygulamalar Bölüm 71: Kasıtlı Tahribata Karşı Dayanıklı Asansörler
- TS EN 81-72 Asansörler Yapım Ve Montaj İçin Güvenlik Kuralları: Yolcu Ve Yük Asansörleri İçin Özel Uygulamalar Bölüm 72: İtfaiyeci Asansörleri
- TS EN 81-58 Yapım ve montaj için güvenlik kuralları - Muayene ve deneyler - Bölüm 58: Kat kapıları için yangına karşı dayanıklılık